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Masters Thesis 2003: Last of The Great Phophets, Sacred Icons of the Ratana Movement and Ratana Church. All information sourced from T.W.Ratana Mangai World Tour Journals, Personal Family Albums Books, Photos, News Clippings, World Tour Newpapers, Old Film Footage, Te Whetu Marama O Te Kotahitanga, Te Rongo Pai Hou A T.W.R. Mangai, (Uri Whakatupuranga The Ratana Research Archive Centre Ratana Pa) online web search Japan, Great Britian, United States America, Australia, New Zealand. Information from personal collections from the Morehu around New Zealand, and those living in Ratana Pa.
was used to feed the people and during the evenings it would be used for evening dances and fun raising events.
was used as a sleeping facility for visitors and utilised as the venue where young Maori were taught the skills of Taiaha, Patu, and Maori Martial arts practicing the good aspects of Maori Culture.
(sisters of mercy) were qualified, as nurses became staff for the patients during the early 1920s.was used as a hospital with up to 30 to 40 beds in the facility. The Awhina
was used for political purposes where discussions were tabled concerning the welfare for the Maori people and Morehu. Their representatives from Ratana would represent the people in Parliament. Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana was the overseer of all works.
(Akoranga Anaru 1997)room was used as a sleeping facility before the original Manuao was built. Te Aroha was also used by the Reo (Band) for practice and rehearsals. This building was also used during the pre-Manuao times as a schoolroom for the children. Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana passed away in the Te Aroha room on the 18th September 1939, at 10am Monday morning.
When entering Ratana Pa the normal Tikanga or Kawa observed by most visitors is they first give thanks to God in prayer inside the Temple for their safe journey. After thanks giving prayers the people would be marched on to the Marae by one of the Ratana Bands. On arriving at the threshold of the Marae a Kai karanga will sound, she will be representing the call of the Wairua Tapu to all people to gather on the sacred Marae of “Te Paa O Nga Ariki.” The speakers come from many parts of the country and are normally Pou o Te Haahi. In their welcoming speech they may mihi to the special buildings that surround the Marae and acknowledge the many Waka that brought our Tupuna here to Aotearoa. The speaker would validate the importance of Kotahitanga (Unity of all) under Jehovah of the Multitudes.
On the 8th October 1931, the Piki Te Ora building was closed ending its legacy as a building that became a place of worship where miracles took place, thus the name Piki Te Ora (Essence of Health) became an icon in Ratana history never to be forgotten. The Piki Te Ora was returned to the Methodist Church and all further official Ratana services were moved down to the Temple and conducted therein. All administrational duties are moved to the new premises on the Ratana Marae. Today on the original site of Piki Te Ora lays the Ratana burial grounds.
(WM No.150 Te Tai I, February 5th 1927: pg5) He Kura I te Morehu
(WM No.103 Te Tai I, March 3rd 1926: pg1) Kawenata o te Haahi Ratana me Kawenata o te Kotahitanga Ratana
(WM No.71, Te Tai I, August 1st 1925: pg4) Tari Rehita
One of the main events for 1924, was the printing of the first copy of the ‘Whetu Marama o te Kotahitanga’ Chronicles of the Ratana Church March 15th 1924, was printed from the Whetu printing office at Ratana Pa, the first newspaper of the Ratana Movement, is a most important part of the structure within the realms of the Maramatanga. Although there were many other records and notes kept by various Secretaries over the years, copies of the Whetu Marama are the only records in existence of the work, sermons and teachings of Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana Mangai, Piri Wiri Tua during his twenty year ministry. The first editor of the Whetu Marama O Te Kotahitanga was Ihaka Te Tai from Te Tai Tokerau (WM, Te Tai, 1924: pg3: WM June 1981, pg7)
Ratana own words to the Whetu staff in 1924:
(Ture Tangata) among the Ratana Adherents. It was responsible for keeping records of births, deaths, and marriages of the Ratana Adherents throughout the land.In order to track the history of the Movement and Church and the Ratana Kotahitanga infrastructures and networks would require an extensive study of the covenants and petitions that were taken and signed by thousands of Maori people throughout Aotearoa between 1920 and 1939. The Kotahitanga was set-up to deal mainly with the physical works
(party) on the 1924 World Tour.The Ture Tangata structure in the Pa also consisted of sports, cultural, educational and musical groups. The Maori cultural group and orchestra formed in the Pa accompanied Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana and his Roopu
(Church Committees) were operating out in the Provinces. The foundation of the works of the Ture Tangata was thus setup. In its effects to improve the Social and Economical lot of the Maori people the Kotahitanga in its wisdom decided to form an investment society. This notice was published in the 1924 Whetu MaramaBy the time these committees were setup and functioning, Komiti Whaiti and Komiti Takiwa
The Ratana School was opened and dedicated by Mr Ratana on the 24th March 1924. In his address, Mr Ratana as always preceded with a prayer. He prayed to God to grant his people the fulfilment of the Holy Spirit, and to bless the school and the children who would study in that environment. Ratana always acknowledged Jehovah first expounding his name to the highest level and depth of honour and glory. God held the keys to all knowledge and to all those things the people expected the school to provide such as knowledge, understanding, intelligence and wisdom and that the people should always acknowledge this fact by thanking and praising God and not them selves. After greeting the people in the usual manner, he congratulated those responsible for building the school and expressed his sincere hope and prayer that the work and activities of the school would at all times be blessed and that the children attending would be influenced to go out in the world and become useful citizens faithfully serving God and their fellow men. (WM Te Tai, 1924: pg4; Akoranga, Anaru; 1997: pg21-pg34)
“All knowledge” said Mr Ratana, “comes from God (Ihoa). Be not therefore like some people, who after having reached the pinnacle of learning flatly deny this, and instead claim it to be of their own efforts and design. In this progress over the centuries Man has attained a high plane of knowledge, so high in fact, that some people would have us believe that they them selves are God; Why they have but to press a button to get what they want. I therefore admonish you of the danger of permitting the devil/evil to enter into your thoughts or work in which you may be engaged.”
Briefly, Mr. Ratana meant that the people should always use them selves and their education for the common good, that selfishness, greed, and false pride should be cast aside. Concluding his address Mr Ratana spoke these words.
In opening your school here today, you have shown that you have come to know another branch of the great tree, which has been planted among our people. The branch of learning, work well, and be prudent and presently one other branch from that same tree will exert its influence so that all our hopes and dreams for the future will come to fruition, God (Ihoa Onga Mano) will be pleased with your diligence and enterprise.” (WM Te Tai, 1924: pg4; Akoranga, Anaru, 1997: pg21- pg34)
Mere Rikiriki was the aunt of Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana. This woman assisted Wiremu during his early days and had foretold that the Wairua Tapu (Holy Spirit) would eventually guide her nephew to be the most prominent leader in Maoridom. Two buildings, the Tikarina and the Matangirei, were gifted to Ratana from his aunt Mere Rikiriki. They were moved from Parewanui to Ratana Pa in 1924. However, the Matangerei was destroyed by fire at Ratana Pa before it was due to opened. The Tikarina (Straight lines) was used as an administration office for many years and at times was used for alternative accommodation. The Tikarina is still used to today too house guests and visitors during the Ratana Celebrations.
“O my People, hasten to me; I am a woman, and being so, I minister unto you as a woman would to her own children (i.e. love and peace). For beware! The time is near when a young man will rise in my place; when he comes there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth; when he comes the true and the false will never survive together, neither will righteous and the unrighteous, no doctrines that are of God and the doctrines of Man and the Devil”. (Akoranga, Anaru, 1997: pg10)
A part of the message of the prophetess was another great leader and prophet wound soon arise among the Maori people. On occasion she repeated the prophecy and later confirmed that the one she referred to was T.W.Ratana and she assured him that when the time was right he would receive signs, which would make his designation certain, which occurred in 1918. Ratana continued to visit his aunt for guidance at times of troubles. This would confirm Ratana and his two sons, Arepa and Omeka signifying the beginning and the end of Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana’s work.
(Henderson, 1963: pg23; Sinclair, 2002: pg37) (Henderson, 1963: pg14; Elsmore B, 1989: pg335)
New streets were being formed and named in Ratana Pa, street lights were being erected, although the electricity was provide by use of a generator installed by Ratana and his loyal followers.
However, the Morehu who still retained their individual Tribal statues where upon their own areas were allocated to build their homes and meeting houses. The home and meeting had were installed with electricity, a bakery was built delivery up to 150 loafs of bread a day, two butcher stores and four general food stores had now been opened in Ratana Pa making the small community a viable little business.
By the end of 1925, the population in Ratana swelled to 600, with hundreds of people still visiting Ratana daily thousands during the Hui festivals. There were many events happening keeping the Morehu entertained spectacular dance groups, poi groups, singing groups, kapa haka performances, topped off with a large screen showing moving pictures, the projector being provided by T.W.Ratana Mangai. T.W.Ratana Mangai gave an invitation to individuals to film the activities taking place in Ratana Pa, such as Poi and Haka. Some morehu were taught how to operate these machines and record their own history happening in the Pa. (WM Te Tai I June 20th 1925; Akoranga Anaru, 1997 pg23)
History of the Manuao goes back to 22nd February 1933, when T.W. Ratana related to the people who gathered on the Marae of a dream he had during his afternoon nap. This would set the scene for the construction of the Manuao that was inspired to him in his dream to build a stronghold for the people, a place of refuge for them to shelter from the floodwaters of this life. Ratana began building a ship on a hill which he named the “Manuao”. Although the Kii koopu part of the Manuao would open on the 6th February 1938, the completion of the Manuao would not be open until the 11th September 1938. Mr Ratana had dreamed of a boat on land yet this boat, liken to Noah's boat the Ark was built for Salvation. This is the English translation of Tahupotiki Wiremu Ratana's dream.
“After the rain that fell this afternoon, I lay down to rest, and in my sleep I dreamed I walked I saw a ship there, sitting on top of a hill all white in colour, with its two funnels so prominent. I thought to myself, what is that ship doing there? I felt that I wanted to go there, and at that same time I heard a roaring sound behind me. On turning around I saw a great flood rushing towards me and covering the land mass as it did so. Then I saw people running and seeking a place of refuge. I called and beckoned to them to hurry towards the island nearby.” “By now I had reached the safety of the ship by climbing a ladder to get aboard. I heard another roar, and on looking down I saw the floodwaters pounding against the side of the ship. When I looked up towards the bridge I saw “Te Whaea” standing there. I asked her, how they were, and she answered that all were well. Again I heard the roar of water, then I woke up, and at that time the rain was falling heavily.” (WM Tane M, 1938: pg3)
In Genesis: Chapter 7: Verses 1- 2-3-4-7-10-16
The Treaty of Waitangi was a document whereby the Maori people through their chiefs, gave the Crown absolute right to govern, New Zealand. In return, the Crown made certain promises, such as Maori people would reserve the right to fish and hunt, to govern themselves in certain circumstances with equal rights with the Pakeha, and the Crown would in its power to protect those rights. The Government operating first from Australia, then later establishing its self in Aotearoa changed the way Maori lived introducing foreign laws and living styles outside the Maori protocol. In the early days, Maori people had their own laws, these systems were the original practices used by the people. This knowledge was based around their Kawa, Tikanga, and Kaupapa. The Treaty of Waitangi was officially signed and sealed by many of those Maori chiefs who sign the Tiriti using their own blood, or using “Moko” (tattoo mark). Hundreds of lives were lost in the fighting due to the land wars. Thousands of acres were lost or taken as payment or punishment for their rebellion against the Crown. The story of the Tiriti and how this affected the Maori people is a tale too long to tell here. There are many aspects concerning the Tiriti O Waitangi that will come up for discussion, but first of all, let us look at two important points that have caused great disappointment and anger among Maori people, the facts about the Tiriti O Waitangi.
By 1938, Ratana unhappy with the NZ Government, knew they had not honored his Tiriti petition to adopt it into statue law. Ratana believed that his petition was never honored by any of the governments that were in power during the time of his Nga Koata. His petition was taken into the House of representatives in 1932, by Ratana Independent candidate Eruera Tihema Tirikatene. His Tiriti petition laid in Parliament in the clerk’s house in for fourteen years and has never been presented or viewed by the New Zealand public. The Treaty of Waitangi has had a modifying influence on offical dealings with Maori people and more generally the New Zealand public attitudes, compared to the European of the 1800s. This had a determination to dominate with colonial domination towards many indigenous races which leaves the gap between Maori and European expectations concerning the Tiriti O Waitangi still remains unbridge to this present day. (Orange C. Pg5: 1987)
The Kii Koopu area was opened on the 6th of February 1938. The Morehu were led by the Reo (Band). These words were spoken by T.W.Ratana and recorded by the editor of the Whetu Marama.
“E te Matua, Tama, Wairua Tapu Me Nga Anahera Pono, tatu atu kia korua e Te Arepa, Te Omeka me o Korua teina” "Your family of Morehu have assembled here in this part of the Manuao, in faith, hope and love, to offer their praises to You, Jehovah, for your giving and bestowing upon them, and the workers building this Manuao, the spirit of goodness and truth. We the Morehu thank you for what has been accomplished at this time, and ask that by your will and power, that the remainder of this building be completed, a building in which your work and laws Ture Wairua and Ture Tangata will be administered and preserved on this earth.”
“Grant the power of your Holy Spirit will always abide in this Manuao. This part of the building is named “Kii Koopu”, here; both the Body and the Spirit shall be filled and satisfied. This part of the building may be termed as the “New Born Child” of this age. Let the newborn child be fed so that the body will grow and gain strength. We pray, there fore that you Jehovah, will provide the Spirit to sustain this newborn child.” “Yours Jehovah is the strength and the power everlasting, which we ask be instilled into this Manuao so that it will serve as a refuge for your Morehu in the difficult times ahead. “A Man of War” (Manuao) is built for war among people, but this Manuao we are building is not meant for that kind of war.This Manuao is designed to serve as a shelter and stronghold in which we may study your will and your way “Jehovah”, in order that we the Morehu may gain strength and wisdom to face our adversaries in a “Battle of the Spirit”, where we shall be your hands and your feet in a battle, you started, and only you can end.”
“Oh Jehovah, your house is assembled, your Manuao stands here today, imbue it with your Spirit and Power and finally let not your Spirit be hidden from the little children gathered here with us, but grant that they grow up in strength and in knowledge of your will and your works on this earth.” (WM Tane: 1938, pg6) (Akoranga Anaru 1997: pg20)
This was indeed a big day for Ratana Pa and the Morehu, for as well as the opening of the Manuao, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, and several guest were among the visitors was expected to visit Ratana for the opening of the facility. In talking to the people about the Manuao T.W.Ratana said no doubt people were wondering that since this was a Man-of-War, where are its Guns? Ratana replied that since the Head of Government is expected here today, it might be the right time for the Manuao’s guns to fire. As Mr Ratana explains; some of you are asking why are those miniature canoes and boats mounted on the front of the Manuao?
“The answer is this; those are “life boats” of your Manuao. Should your Manuao overturn, you will know that your Waka (Lifeboat) is there for you to turn to. You see, the function of a lifeboat is to save people. There they are, Aotea, Tainui, Kurahaupo, Tokomaru, Takitimu, Te Arawa, and Mataatua”
Ratana continued his speech by saying: “I have greeted many of you in Maori, and I find that you do not understand and answer what? Therefore, I say it is fitting that Captain Cook’s waka is on the Manuao too, for it appears that some of you belong to it rather than to the waka. Ships only have one Captain, but your Manuao has two. There is Piri Wiri Tua manning one wheel, and the Mangai, manning another. Yes, two Captains, each smoking his pipe and waving goodbye to those who missed the boat.”
During evening service T.W.Ratana began to teach his Morehu about the significance of the Manuao repeating his very sermon he spoke that afternoon. Many of his sermons he delivered to the people were repetitious to enable them to understand what he was actually saying. Ratana said that the Manuao and its meaning revolves around the seven Canoes and the two sailing ships, Captain Cook’s “Endeavour”, and Abel Tasman’s “Heemskerk.” The Manuao has great significance spiritually and physically in this Maramatanga.
T.W.Ratana called it his Koha Mutunga, his last and parting gift to the Maori people. He told the people this is your “Last Chance.” T.W.Ratana explained that the Morehu, although coming from different tribes and races, we are “One People”, and that we should not allow divisions in any shape or form spoil this. The Manuao teaches us many beautiful things we should strive and follow and exemplify in our daily walk of life, both spiritually and physically.”
The 11th September was his last and parting gift (Koha Mutunga) the Manuao building to the Morehu. After T.W.Ratana passed away, for a long time the Manuao was under the care of the Komiti Matua, Ture Wairua, Ture Tangata, and the Komiti Marae. The former was a committee comprised of (Nga Koata) the members of Parliament which were charged with the administration of the finances of the Temple and Manuao, while the Komiti Marae saw to the day-to-day, or minor maintenance work and general care of the Manuao. (Akoranga Anaru: 1997: pg26)
The acting minister of Native affairs, the Hon.F Langaston, Sir Apirana Ngata, and other members of Parliament would be present . There were Hundreds of telegrams and letters of sympathy that poured into the Ratana Post Office. The whakamatautauranga (testing times) endured by Ratana immediately after the 8th November 1918, the torment, hard work, worry and sacrifices endured during his ministry, culminating in his death on the 18th September 1939. The 11th September was his last and parting gift (Koha Mutunga) the Manuao building to the Morehu. (Akoranga, Anaru; pg26: 1997)
King Tawhiao Prophesy: During the 1840s Tawhiao spoke these words:
“Kia tupato ki te te kau ma waru o nga ra, ko Hepetema te Marama, tau Ariki te Tau, he tau tuku whakahere kia Ihoa.”
“Beware of the 18th day, September will be the month; a year when you will be reminded of a first born of one high born; a year, of sacrifice to Jehovah.”
This prophecy of Tawhiao provides the key to the real significance of the 18th September. It reminds us of the great sacrifice made during Jesus Christ life time, culminating in the Crucification at Calvary, the hurt and sacrifices suffered and made by the Apostles and the Prophets of the old Testament. The whakamatautauranga (testing times) endured by Ratana immediately after the 8th November 1918, the torment, hard work, worry and sacrifices endured during his ministry, culminating in his death on the 18th September 1939.
After T.W.Ratana passed away, for a long time the Manuao was under the care of the Komiti Matua, Ture Wairua, Ture Tangata, and the Komiti Marae. The former was a committee comprised of (Nga Koata) the members of Parliament which were charged with the administration of the finances of the Temple and Manuao, while the Komiti Marae saw to the day-to-day, or minor maintenance work and general care of the Manuao.
In 1940, the son of the late T.W.Ratana, Tokouru Haami Ratana, become President of the Ratana Church. His associates Paraire Paikea, Iriaka, Eruera Tirikatene, and Tiaki Omana had great influence in caucus. Housing and general social economics with health standards improved to help Maori society adapt to the new modern life style. Ratana Pa was the example to Maori settlements. Ratana Pa became an example to many Maori communities throughout Aotearoa.
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